Just A Moment

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Key People:Joseph PriestleyJoseph-Louis Gay-Lussac...(Show more)Related Topics:hydrochloric acidhydrogene halide...

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hydrogene chloride (HCl), a compound of the elements hydrogen & chlorine, a gas at room temperature & pressure. A solution of the gas in water is called hydrochloric acid.

Hydroren chloride may be formed by the direct combination of chlorine (Cl2) gas và hydrogene (H2) gas; the reaction is rapid at temperatures above sầu 250 °C (482 °F). The reaction, represented by the equation H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl, is accompanied by evolution of heat and appears khổng lồ be accelerated by moisture. Hydroren chloride is commonly prepared both on a laboratory và on an industrial scale by the reaction of a chloride, generally that of sodium (NaCl), with sulfuric acid (H2SO4). It is also produced by the reaction of some chlorides (e.g., phosphorus trichloride, PCl3, or thionyl chloride, SOCl2) with water & as a by-hàng hóa of the chlorination of many organic substances (e.g., methane or benzene).

Hydrochloric acid is prepared by dissolving gaseous hydroren chloride in water. Because of the corrosive nature of the acid, ceramic, glass, or sometimes tantalum apparatus is commonly used. Hydrochloric acid is usually marketed as a solution containing 28–35 percent by weight hydrogene chloride, commonly known as concentrated hydrochloric acid. Anhydrous liquid hydrogene chloride is available, but because heavy và expensive sầu containers are required lớn store it, the use of hydroren chloride in this form is limited.

Hydroren chloride is a colourless gas of svào odour. It condenses at −85 °C (−121 °F) & freezes at −114 °C (−173 °F). The gas is very soluble in water: at trăng tròn °C (68 °F) water will dissolve sầu 477 times its own volume of hydrogene chloride. Because of its great solubility, the gas fumes in moist air. A water solution containing trăng tròn.24 percent by weight hydrogene chloride boils at 110 °C (230 °F) without change in composition (azeotropic mixture). In aqueous solution the compound is extensively dissociated into lớn a hydronium ion (H3O+) and chloride ion (Cl−); in dilute solutions the dissociation is essentially complete. Thus, hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.

Gaseous hydroren chloride reacts with active sầu metals and their oxides, hydroxides, và carbonates lớn produce chlorides. These reactions occur readily only in the presence of moisture. Completely dry hydroren chloride is very unreactive. The reactions of hydrochloric acid are those of typical svào acids, such as: reactions with metals in which hydrogene gas is displaced, reactions with basic (metal) oxides & hydroxides that are neutralized with the formation of a metal chloride và water, and reactions with salts of weak acids in which the weak acid is displaced. Hydrochloric acid also enters inkhổng lồ chemical reactions characteristic of the chloride ion, such as reactions with various inorganic and organic compounds in which hydrochloric acid is used as a chlorinating agent & reactions with metals và their oxides in which complex chloride-containing ions are formed (e.g., with platinum, 2−, or with copper, 2−). The latter type of reaction accounts for the ease of solution of certain metals and metallic compounds in hydrochloric acid although they are slowly dissolved in other acids of equal strength (e.g., sulfuric or nitric acid). For this reason, hydrochloric acid is used extensively in the industrial processing of metals & in the concentration of some ores.

Hydrochloric acid is present in the digestive juices of the human stomach. Excessive secretion of the acid causes gastric ulcers, while a marked deficiency of it impairs the digestive sầu process & is sometimes the primary cause of deficiency anemias. Exposure to 0.1 percent by volume hydrogen chloride gas in the atmosphere may cause death in a few minutes. Concentrated hydrochloric acid causes burns & inflammation of the skin.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia neftekumsk.com This article was most recently revised & updated by Amy Tikkanen.