VALUATION LÀ GÌ

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When Wall Street finally realized its dot-com valuations were off by 90% to 100%, the stoông xã market damage was spectacular.
More troubling was the finding that the source of valuation for cost estimates was often unclear or not reported.
Uninformed & inefficient trade of environmental quality for capital inflows may be due khổng lồ an incorrect valuation of environmental damages.
The discussion and valuation of pension promises is presented intuitively, making it easy khổng lồ follow and to lớn understvà the economics behind pension funding và accounting.
Table 1 indicates the valuation for hourly costs (social security contributions included), and tariffs for personnel involved in either health care or coordination.
Mediation aao ước truyền thông means recognition and valuation of independent, if marginalized, indistinct, & indecipherable voices.
The valuation of time otherwise spent on leisure activities or unpaid work is more difficult (9;20).
Contingent valuation surveys can also be used to lớn estimate the willingness of consumers khổng lồ pay for public broadcasting.
Now monetary exchange is challenged by costly deterministic matching, và both valuation of money & relative sầu extent of the competing trade mechanisms are determined endogenously.

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The single non-blockable equilibrium has transfers between nations at their marginal valuation, based on their order along the river.
In the absence of markets và money as a commensurable unit of valuation, economic actors would be unable to lớn make rational decisions concerning productive alternatives.
We shall return to lớn the problem of extending a valuation khổng lồ a measure, but only lớn the generated algebra, not the generated -algebra.
These marginal contributions should be determined by including in the valuation process an understanding of the scientific properties of the environmental service.
The standard approaches khổng lồ economic evaluation equate "societal valuation" with health gain measured in (equally weighted) quality-adjusted life-years.
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